Nutrition issues are very important for maintaining a person’s health throughout his life. Eating correctly can prevent the development of many serious diseases, for this it is necessary to follow simple known rules.
Nutrition plays a big role in human health. Malnutrition for a long time becomes not just a risk factor for the development of a disease, but one of its main causes. Nutrition rules are simple and everyone knows, but not all are carried out. Many people prefer from time to time to get involved in diets of different authors, who promise healing from any disease. But, if it were so simple, then the patients would not have been there for a long time. Therefore, we should not overestimate the role of nutrition; a healthy diet can only prevent the development of various diseases, and treat existing diseases should be under the supervision of a doctor.
What are the principles of healthy eating?
The first principle of healthy nutrition is to maintain the energy balance between the consumed and the spent quantity of Kilocalories, and it becomes for many the most difficult, to eat as many kilocalories as the body needs, and not how much you want. Most often, the reason for these difficulties lies in psychological problems. The fact that in a state of stress, depression and just a bad mood, there is an increased need for the body in sweets. Since sugars through insulin activate the synthesis of serotonin, the mediator of the central nervous system, it is this mediator responsible for a good mood and a sense of satisfaction. In such cases, to comply with the first rule, another psychoemotional correction is recommended for a psychologist or psychotherapist. Calculate the individual daily requirement for calories, taking into account the region of residence, the time of year, the type of occupation and physical exertion yourself.
To maintain a consistently optimal weight, the amount of incoming kcal should not exceed the amount spent. On average, a person needs about 2000 kcal. per day. The sources of energy for the body are fats and carbohydrates.
Deficiency of kcal on a background of obesity will lead to weight loss and normalization of weight, and deficiency of kcal in a diet on a background of the lowered weight will lead to exhaustion. The extreme degree of exhaustion is called cachexia, this state is not compatible with life, since irreversible dystrophic processes occur in all organs and tissues.
To date, an urgent problem is the excessive consumption of kcal and, as a consequence, the development of obesity, this obesity is called alimentary.
Quantitatively, obesity is determined by using the body mass index (body mass divided by height in meters squared). The indicator from 19 to 24 is the norm, 25-30 is an excess of body weight, more than 30 is obesity. The danger of obesity, especially with regard to the abdominal type of obesity, is that fat is deposited not only under the skin, but also in the internal organs, in the heart, vessels, liver, etc.
This causes the development of such serious diseases as atherosclerosis, fatty hepatosis, which in turn leads to the development of hypertension, coronary heart disease, dyscirculatory encephalopathy. Complications of these diseases are heart attacks and strokes, which result in the death or disability of a person.
The second principle of healthy eating is that food should not only be a source of energy; in this case, we could cover the daily requirement of the organism in Kcal by the same products, for example, two kilograms of potatoes or a two-hundred-gram piece of fat per day.
Food should also be a source of building material. Our cells, tissues consist of protein, protein-lipid and protein-carbohydrate compounds and constantly renewing old cells for new ones. With age, this ability of the body is greatly reduced and senile changes appear. For renewal, the body needs an indispensable building material – protein. The daily need of an adult in a protein is about 60 grams. Very important in the daily diet vitamins and minerals, without which biochemical processes in the body are impossible.
The lack of a building material – protein – leads to dystrophic disorders in tissues and organs, as a result of which their function is to some extent violated. Accordingly, the more protein deficiency, the more pronounced changes in the organs. The hormonal, enzymatic, immune functions of the body are disrupted.
Excess protein is also unfavorable for the body, as it contributes to acidification, the development of urolithiasis and gout.
Deficiency of vitamins and minerals leads to no less serious diseases, for example, iodine and selenium deficiency causes thyroid diseases. Deficiency of iron is the cause of iron deficiency anemia. The lack of vitamins B6, B12, B1 leads to anemia and impairment of the nervous system. Deficiency of vitamin D and calcium leads to rickets in children and osteoporosis in adults.
The third principle of healthy nutrition is that the source of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals must be natural, quality products of animal and vegetable origin that have not undergone profound industrial processing, as a result of which useful properties are lost and harmful due to the addition of various preservatives, flavor stabilizers.
Which foods should be chosen as a source of protein.
Vegetable sources are nuts, soybeans and legumes, but the vegetable protein does not contain all the essential amino acids necessary for the body. Therefore, in the diet must be present animal proteins – low-fat meat: chicken fillets, turkeys, beef, dairy products – this is cottage cheese and cheese. A good source of protein is eggs and fresh or fresh-frozen fish. Fish, like vegetable oils, also refers to sources of useful fat, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. To a relatively “useful” is and duck fat.
But the solid fats: pork, beef, mutton and milk fat, are classified as harmful fats because of the high content of cholesterol in them and the almost complete absence of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Cholesterol is a very necessary substance and the body synthesizes it independently in sufficient quantity. Surplus cholesterol entering the body with food forms a heavy compound with a protein of low density, which easily settles on the walls of the vessels, forming atherosclerotic plaques due to which the normal blood supply of organs and tissues is disrupted. Polyunsaturated fatty acids form with proteins the compounds called high and very high density lipoproteins, which, on the contrary, are able to cling and transport cholesterol from an atherosclerotic plaque reducing it in size.
Which foods should be chosen as sources of useful carbohydrates?
Of course – it’s vegetables, fruits and cereals; cereals in the form of cereals, cereals, slices, whole-grain flour, pasta. In addition to digestible carbohydrates, glucose, fructose, maltose, and starch (these carbohydrates in the body are converted to glycogen and deposited in the liver and muscles providing a reserve of energy), these foods contain a complex carbohydrate-cellulose. Fiber is not absorbed by the body, but it creates volume in the gastrointestinal tract, due to which the feeling of saturation with a low calorie content quickly sets in. In addition, vegetables, fruits and grains contain many vitamins, minerals and other compounds useful to the body.
But such products as cakes, pastries, bread, sweets, meat semi-finished products, fast food, canned food, etc. are harmful to health due to the content of chemical additives in them, which are carcinogens that cause cancer.
Consult a nutritionist, calculate the individual energy balance, the daily amount of proteins, fats, carbohydrates and make a menu based on the initial body weight, occupation and physical activity will help the doctor, a dentist.
And the last fourth principle of healthy nutrition is the observance of sanitary requirements for products. Poorly washed vegetables, fruits, as well as products with broken terms and conditions of storage, become a source of infection, causing food-borne disease, salmonella and various other “pleasures”. Meat and fish that have not undergone veterinary control can also be a source of parasitic diseases.
We all want to stay healthy as long as possible. And health is, above all, a healthy lifestyle, an integral part of which is a healthy diet. Healthy nutrition provides normal growth, development and vital functions of the body, contributes to the prevention of many diseases.
Questions of nutrition should be given serious consideration from early childhood, forming the correct eating behavior, so that the second half of life did not have to be spent on fighting the accumulated diseases due to malnutrition.